UNIQUE CLONING PROCESS IN BIO-TECHNOLOGY makes Herbert H.Webber derive the term cloning etimologically from ancient Greek word Klon.It refers to the process whereby a twig of a plant produces a new plant.Botanists used the term Luscus traditionally.Horticulturists used the spelling clon until 20th century.
Cloning process in biotechnology describes the processes researchers employ to produce the genetically identical or DNA copies of a biological entity.Researchers cloned wide ranges of biological materials as genes,cells and even the entire organisms as sheep.
Unique cloning process in bio-technology says that some plants,fungi,and unicellular organisms as bacteria clone simply through inoculation.Such organisms naturally reproduce genetically identical offsprings asexually through cloning.Identical twins occur in human beings or other mammals naturally.They have genetic make-up similar to each other.Identicals differ genetically from either of their parents. Naturally cloning organisms are Bluberry plants,Hazel trees,Mando trees,Kentucky coffeeMtrixa and American sweetgum.
TYPES OF CLONING.
Gene cloning produces copies,genes or genetic segments of DNA.
Reproductive cloning duplicates and produces copies of whole animals.Organism cloning produces new multicellular organisms genetically identical to one another.Asexual reproduction essentially goes on without imter-gamete contact.
Therapeutic cloning produces and connects embryonic stem cells and creates experimentally tissues that replaces injured or damaged tissues.Scientists call it SCNT or Semantic-Cell-nuclear-transfer.Research cloning harvests embryonic stem cells that work on several diseases and treat those potentially.Such healing techniques work on Diabetes,Alzheimer’s etc.
HOW BIO-TECHNOLOGISTS CLONE GENES.
Researchers routinely apply cloning techniques to make copies of genes that they wish to study.Procedurally they insert a gene(DNA) from one foreign organism into the genetic material of a carrier they term as vectors(bacteria,yeast cells,viruses or plasmids).Cloning process in biotechnology first inserts the genes.Then they place the vector under laboratory conditions and prompt it to multiply copying several genes as the parent.2
Moldcular cloning develops multiple molecules.Vectors produce protein,tag affinity,develop single standard DNA or RNA and several molecular tools.Linearization of vectors utilize restriction enzymes.They incubate fractions of interesting appropriate conditions with an enzyme they term as DNA Ligase.Tissue culture techniques image all cell lines along cloning rings or cylinders.At the early growth stage clone colonies only consist of a few cells or sterile polystrynene(cloning rings).Scientists dip those rings in grease inside the laboratory,place it over identical colony and add small amount of trypsin to those.They collect clone cells from the rings and transfer those to another vessel for growth.
Alternative techniques are as chemical sensitation of cells,electroporation,optical infection and ballistics.
HOW BIO-TECHNOLOGISTS CLONE ANIMALS.
Unique cloning process in bio-technology has various routes along which biotechnologists might go on.Following strategic techniques they a)Fragment or break apart a strand of DNA.b)Locate or glue together pieces of DNA basing experimental sequences.c)Transfer or insert the new piece of DNA into cell and d)Screen or select that they could successfully transfer into the new DNA.
PROCESS OF REPRODUCTIVE CLONING.
Reproductive cloning removes a mature somatic cell from an animal that scientists wish to copy.Researchers transfer the DNA of the donor animal’s somatic cell into an egg or oocytes.They allow an adult female DNA somatic cell to give birth to animals bearing her genetic make up.They might allow a surrogate mother to develop an embryo that they will clone.
SPIECIES WHO EXPERIENCED CLONING.
The biotechnologists created CLONES for different animals as—Tadpole,Crab,Zebrafish,Sheep,Mice,Rhesus monkey,Pig,Cattle,Car,Rat,Mule,Dog,Wolf,Buffalo,Goat,Gastric brooding frog,Macaque monkey.
SCNT technique cloned many animals.
Human cloning seems a fiction even these days.Evidences does not speak of any scientific cloning of human embryo.Unavoidable situations interrupted the South Korean human embryo(1998) when it was just a group of four cells.The Clonoids or believers of extraterritorial creation of humans announced the birth of girl Eve in 2002.They purportedly created other twelve CLONES.Their were no confirmed evidence that they existed. In 2004 Woo Suk Twang led group of Seoul National University crated human embryo in a laboratory test tube.
ARE THE CLONES IDENTICAL.
CLONES might not appear identical.They bare and share factually the same genetic material.But they external environment develops what are within them.The coat colour and pattern of the female calico or the first cat the scientists clone was different from his mother.It does not always depend on parent genes.
ANIMAL CLONING APPLICATIONS.
IN FOOD PRODUCTION.
In agriculture and medicine animal CLONES serve a lot.Scottish Dolly sheep researchers cloned several others that they have genetically modified to produce human milk protein essential for blood clotting.Technical CLONES new drug testing and develop treatment strategies.Genetically identical animals ensure uniform responses in drug testing.US Food and Drug Administration said that milk from CLONES of pigs and cattles are safe as well.FDA instigated and granted freedom to make cloned copies of cultivable traits of animals as milk production or for lean meat.Animal food from scientific CLONES do not appear in supermarket.Those are highly expensive.
CREATING EXTINCT GENES.
CLONES buildup populations to extinct and would be extinct animal species which would disappear orherwise.Sadly enough Baby Gaur to Axion or oxen in danger expired only after his surrogate mother gave birth to it.Banteg was a successful clone.Three African wildcat clones came up from frozen embryo as a source of DNA.
Horticulturists propagate asexual reproduction for hundreds of years.They refer to by cloning descendents of a single plat that appeared as a result ofvvegetative reproduction or apomixus.They have single parents that multiplied by some process different from sexual reproduction. Examples are certain European grapes,potato,banana.
IT is the reproduction process when the organism reproduces by itself without any mate.Examples are some insects,crustaceans,nematodes,fish as Hammerhead Shark,lizards as Komado Dragon,whiptails.They grow without male fertilization.In species using XY sex-determination system the offspring will always be female.An example is native Central and South American little fire an’t or Wasmmanua Auropanctata.
Some wish to pay biotechnologists to get copies of their pets that died.
ANIMAL CLONING DRAWBACKS.
Reproductive cloning in animals is not a very efficient mode of cloning.It does not always produce healthy offsprings.Dolly survived as a clone while other 277 CLONES developed by the same experimentalists failed to survive.Cloning might be unsafe and it suffers from technical defects.It might produce offsprings with liver,brain and heart mak-formations.The babies born might be of abnormal birth sizes,short lifespan and disordered immunity levels.Scientists cloned Dolly sheep from a six years old sheep.It had shorter chromosomes than other sheep of her age.Normal sheep lifespan is twelve years and Dolly died in six years.
Therapeutic cloning creates embryo for creating embryonic stem cells identical to a donor DNA.They employ such stem cells in experiments to understand diseases and develop treatments.Researchers hope to use embryonic stem cells that bears the capability of generating virtually all types of cells of an organism.Healty tosses that healghy laboratory surroundings grew replaces injured and diseased tissues.Syem cell lines of embryos they say would bring about molecular causes of diseases.They use their ES tools of differentiation to test excellently new therapeutic drugs.
SIMILARITY:STEM CELLS AND CANCER CELLS.
Both Stem cells and Cancer cells proliferate indefinitely.After 60 cycles of cell-division stem cells might mutate to Cancer.They are to differentiate between the to before applying stem cells for recovery cares.
ETHICAL ISSUES IN CLONING.
Unique cloning process in bio-technology put forward an ethical debate on whether to encourage cloning or not.
Many biotecnology labirarories worldwide experiment on gene cloning.But application of both reproductive and therapeutic cloning suffer from ethical problems.Human cloning raises severe issues.Reproductive cloning largely conflict social values of human dignity,infringe the principles of human freedom,identity and autonomy.Human societies are to allow ethically the sterile couples go on with reproductive cloning to fulfil their dreams of parenting.Some say that human cloning avoids person on deleterious gene existing in families without embryo screening or selection.Theraputkc colonists are never reasonably proper to collect embryonic stem cells even for beneficial aspects of recovery.