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PIONEERING ROLE OF ARPANET IN COMPUTER NETWORKS.

Role of ARPANET in computer networks determined future Internet.

Pioneering role of ARPANET in computer networks points at US defence Advanced Research Project Agency (ARPA) initiated projects on information flow in large communication nets.It developed experimentally the Advanced Research Projects Association Network Communication or ARPANET in 1960s.

ARPA PROJECTS.

ARPA primarily aimed at linking the computers at Pentagon founded research institutions through telephone lines.The military commanders in the severe Cold War hours sought a computer communication system without any central core or operational headquarter prone to enemy attack. ARPA communication technologists developed for decades to begin the role of ARPANET in computer networks.Fear of surprise Sovitet nuclear attacks against the US backed the earliest projections.

LICKLIDER DEVELOPED TECHNOLOGIES.

Josheph Carl Robnett Licklider was the first director of Information Processing Technology Office or IPTO.The US developers built Semi Automatic Ground Environment or SAGE to track the incoming enemy aircraft and co-ordinate military response.The system had a massive mainframe computer to track 400 airplanes.It could distinguish between friendly aircraft and enemy bombers.The semi automatic system required human control.SAGE technology of network had tremendous capability of interactive computing.

HUMAN MIND AND COMPUTER SYMBIOTICALLY MAERRY.

Licklider in his seminal essay on man computer symbiosis spoke of marriage of human mind with computer.He stated that the humans teamed with computers could create a better world.The efforts tried out radical ideas.His ideas backboned existing
computer graphics,parallel processing,computer flight simulation and other key conecpts along with internet.He signaled ARPA demilitarization and changed its name from Command and Control Research to IPTO.

ROBERT TAILOR THE EVANGELIST.

As the director of Information In Processing Technologies(IPTO) Tailor became a key figure.He developed ARPANET largely .His high powered observation and abilities picked up Licklider’s mantle and developed distributed interactive computing.They co authored Computer as a Communication Device in 1968.It predicted everything from global online communities to mood sensing computer interfaces.In his room at Pentagon he accessed time shared system which earned him social observation.Taylor and his colleagues sought to link computers and researchers altogether.

TIME SHARING TECHNOLOGY.

Pioneering role of ARPANET in computer networks says that time sharing techniques allowed people to exchange messages and share files.Interactive communities were formed around the machine.Talor decided to merge three computer systems to one instead of working on three computer machines.A simple computer language will allow one terminal to link with any other terminal.

ACM NETWORK PLAN PUT TO PUBLIC.

Taylor proposed and secured funding for ARPANET with this idea.An Association For Computing Machinery(ACM)first publicly put forward a network plan in 1967.At Tennesse the technologists announced that they would link 16 ARPA sponsored universities and centers across The United States.

ARPANET TECHNICALITIES.

Pioneering role of ARPANET in computer networks prove promising as on various aspects of networking innovations.Developers devised,tested and deployed new applications continually.

TELNET FILE-TRANSFER AND NETWORK-CONTROL PROTOCOLS.

Telnet was the first Internet Service Provider(ISP). Telnet File Transfer Protocol(FTP)and Network Control Protocol(NCP) developed.ARPANET however could not connect to other networks developed at that time.Too much human control and massive standardization of machines and equipments was necessary.

SATELLITE NETWORKING CONNECT BY ARPA.

In 1973 ARPA sought to connect to SATNET(Satellite Networking)and a Hawaii based packet radio system named as ALOHANET.ARPA scholars tested on their networking in 1977 Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol(TCP/IP).Such process networking could transmit data packets then to subsequently to several users.

HYPER TEXT MARKUP LANGUAGE DVELOPED.

Tim Berners Lee a CERN scientist developed Hyper Text Markup Language(HTML).It contributed technologically to what the modern Internet users navigate along and view the networks of websites.

ON PROTOCOLS.


By the late 1970s several networks as SNET(Computer Science Research Network),BITNET(Because Its Time Network),CDNET(Canadian Network)and NSFNET(National Science Foundation Network)developed.

TECHNOCRATS COINED THE TERM INTERNET.

The term Internet came into existence in 1983.The research authorities divided ARPANET in a)MILNET for the military and defense agencies and b)A civilian version in 1983.

TCP/IP BECAME MASSIVELY POPULAR.

TCP/IP became more and more popular in communication technology.In 1982 ARPANET authorities administrative protocol NCP for a day allowing only Cref’s TCP/IP language users to communicate. NCP consigned to history and it became the universal protocol.

BIRTH OF UNIX OPERATING SYSTEM.

In 1985 a version of Unix Operating System as the driver of networking computers integrated the protocol into it.In 1987 the hosts on Internet exceeded to 20,000.Commoners started using World Wide Web in 1991 and subsequently the term ‘surfing the internet’ became popular.In 1993 the number of websites reached 600 and White House went online with The United Nations.The number of NSFNET connected computers became 2 million.

SEVERAL FREE COMMERCIAL SERVERS CAME UP.

Prodigy,Fidonet,Usenet,Gopher gradually came up as both free and commercial servers.NSFNET became the backbone of Internent.ARPANET’s importance diminished.

ARPANET CREATED HISTORY.


The precursor to modern internet computing jumpstarted initially with the US defence projections of ARPANET.The NSF wing ultimately supported regional research and education networks throughout USA.The researchers and educationists connected their computing systems to NSFNET.It was essentially a network of networks.Internet grew from the merger of several individual computer networks the oldest of all was ARPANET.ARPA linked several computer networks.

NETWORK OF NETWORKS ENHANCED COMPUTABILITY AND DECENTRALIZED DATA STORAGE.

It firstly enhanced the overall computing capabilities.Secondly it decentralized information storage.It carried on in 1966 hosted a program with a group of research institutions as Research Sharing Computer Networks. Sadly enough, communication computing authorities shut ARPANET system down in 1989 and finally decommissioned it in 1990.Tim Berners Lee re-transformed everything allover again with the introduction of World Wide Web.ARPANET team of electrical engineers,computer scientists,applied mathematicians and graduate students with their recorded activities and processes in Request For Commands(RFC)is worth mentioning.

PACKET SWITCHING DAYS.

The ARPANET technologists desired to share information over great distances without dedicated telephone connections.The users required data switching. Research authorities instructed Paul Baran of RAND Corporation to develop a computer communication network which would survive nuclear attack and continue to function.He introduced hot potato routing that later came up a packet switching.Packets are small digital information clusters which break up from larger messages to ensure expediency.In 1965 two computers at MIT Lincoln Laboratory communicated with one another with digital packets.BBN unveiled the first version of Interface Message Processor(IMP) specification.

INTERFACE MESSAGE PROCESSOR(IMP)OF BBN.

The technology was similar to present splitting up of emails to numerous electronic packets which provide random access through telephone.Packets had mathematical verification schemes to ensure and safeguard data during transmission.The network path which they travel consisted of digital switches that automatically forwarded the packets towards destination.The ARPANET scholars eventually re-discovered themselves in his packet switching ideas in 1964.The efforts of ULCA graduate students had several limitations which they bugged later.

REMOTE TECNICALITIES.

The ARPA ultimately logged in to a remote computer.It printed to a remote printer and transferred files to the other computers.The two node computer network or nascent generated immense interest. By the end of 1969 several academic institutions crowded to connect through ARPANET.Global networking became a reality as The University College of London(England)Royal Radar Establishment(Norway)connected to ARPANET. The mailing lists became popular as LISTSERVERS among the science fiction lovers.In 1971 BBNs Ray Tomilson wrote the first email program.The ARPANET community promptly accepted it.In 1976 Queen Elizabeth hit the send button and sent her first email.In 1979 UESNET hosted the news and discussion groups.In 1981 The National Science Foundation(NSF) provided a grant to establish the Computer Science Network(CSNET) that would connect university computer scientists.

ARPA PROTOCOL TCP/IP AND DOMAIN NAME.

TCP/IP emerged in 1982 as the ARPANET protocol.The Domain Name System(DNS) in 1983 came up with familiar domain names as .edu,.com,org,.govt etc.and hosted websites. In 1984 William Gibson as the author of Neuromancer first used the term cyberspace.Symbolics Computer Corporation of Massachusetts in 1985 developed the first registered domain symbolics. The NSF went online and connected to supercomputers at 56,000bits per second as the speed of a typical dial up computer modem.In 1987 . A 1991 there were 15 nodes and 23 host terminals in the network.Four initial schools,contractor BBN,MIT,RAND Corporation and most significantly NASA joined to the networking.By January 1976 there were 35 connected nodes and by 1976 there were 63 connected hosts.

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