OVERVIEWING EASY THE UNITED NATIONS speks of,in a nutshell several aspects of the most trustworthy international organization today.It is an organization that commits to make the world free from war and fear of war.UN seeks to maintain international peace and security with its organs,specialized agencies,funds and programmes.
UNITED NATIONS FOLLOWED THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS:
Overviewing the United Nations reveal that the forerunner of it was the League of Nations.In 1919,The Treaty of Versailles established it to promote international co-pperation and achieve peace and security throughout the world.It also founded International Labour Organization as an agency of League affiliate.The League of Nations ceased to operate afrer it failed to prevent the Second World War.
THE UN HAD IRS ORIGIN IN SANFRANCISCO CONFERENCE:
The then President of the United States of America Mr.D.Roosevelt coined the term United Nations.In 1945 the representatives of 50 countries met at San Francisco on UN Conference and drew up the UN Charter.Delegates deliberated on the basis of proposals that the representatives of China,Soviet Union,United Kingdom and United States Of America worked out at Dumberton Osks in USA.Representatives of 50 countries signed the UN Charter on 26th June,1945.
OFFICIAL COMMENCEMENT OF THE UNITED NATIONS:
Overviewing the United Nations says that it officially came into existence on 24th October,1945.China,France,USA,USSR,UK ratified the UN Charter by a majority of other signatories.Peace-loving citizens of the world celebrate 24th October as the United Nations Day every year.
Fifty one countries of the world firmly resolved after the Second World War to develop friendly relations amongst themselves.The United Nations had its origin in the year 1945.
PRIMAL OBJECTIVES OF THE UNITED NATIONS:
The member countries and the organization as a whole seek to promote social progress,better living standards and human rights.The organization bears an unique international character and take action on a wide range of issues that The UN Charter empowers it.A forum consisting of its 193 member states lets the members.Overviewing the United Nations speaks of the fact that it seeks to promote harmony and friendly relations among nations.
CONSTITUENT ORGANS OF THE UNITED m ORGANIZATION:
Overviewing the United Nations unfolds that the organization performs its activities through the constituent organs as:a)The General Assembly,b)The Security Council, c)The Economic and Social Council,d)The Trusteeship Council,e)The International Court of Justice,f)The Secretariat.
and several other integrating bodies and committees.
THE UN WITH ITS PROGRAMS AND POLICIES REACHES EVERY CORNER OF THE GLOBE:
The international organization as UN seeks to reach every corner of the globe with manifold categories of activities.It maintains and develop peace,prevent conflict between nations at large for the betterment of humanity.UN programmes and policies act to turn world a place to live in by impacting the life and activities of mem worldwide.It works on fundamental issues as sustainable development,environment and refugee management,disaster relief,terrorism etc.Its goals and achievements on wide bases co-ordinate to bring about safer communities and subsequent generations.
THE SECOND ALL-ENHANCING INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION:
The United Nations was the second multipurpose international organization of the 20th century towards world integration in positive trends. Overviewing the United Nations says that it is rather wide in scope and membership.It has its headquar3in Nu York City,USA and regional offices in Geneva,Vienna and Nairobi.The official languages of The UN are Arabic,Chinese,Engkush,Russuan and Spanish.
THE UN SEEKS TO END WAR THROUGH PROMOTION OF PEACE:
The UN seeks to rescue the successive generations from the scourges of war,reaffirm faith in fundamental human rights,ensure justice to all narions and respect for obligations arising out of treaties and international laws.Its objectives of achieving relations of peace and harmony base on mutual respect on equal rights and self determination of nations.Member states serk to integrate individualistic social,cultural and conomic policies for development of wholesome international community.
IN THE ERA OF ALTERATION IN PERSPECTIVES:
Massive transformation in the nature of international relations resulted in modifications of the UN and its decision making tactics.Overviewing the United Nations says so.Cold War tensions between the Big Powers USA and the USSR spoke upon its activies in the first forty five years of its existence.Extensive decolonization in Africa,Asia and Middle East after the Second World War developed critical socioeconomic issues that it had to confront.
AT THE ONSET OF NEW CENTURY:
At the beginning of the 21st century the UN along with its programmes and affiliates sought to address humanitarian crises,civil wars,unprecedented refugee flow allover,Aids devastations,global financial discrepancies,international terrorism and rich-poor discrepancies.Overviewing the United Nations researches out several effectivities of it as an all embracing international seeker of welfare.
THE EFFORTS OF THE UNITED NATIONS FORERUNNER:
The League of Nations encountered critical situations and sought to arbitrate conflicts prior to the Second World War.It failed as the World War II broke out.
AGREEMENT OF THE ALLIED POWERS ON THE NEED OF PECE-KEEPER:
.The major Allied Powers agreed during the War on the need to establish a new world organization in assisting the management of international affairs.US President Mr.Franklin D.Roosevelt and the UK Prime Minister Mr.Winston Churchill signed the Atlantic Charter in August 1941and articulated such an agreement. Origunallt,the name of UN denoted the countries that allied against Germany,Italy and Japan.
THE DESIGNING OF THE UNITED NATIONS ORGANIZATION:
The USA,UK,USSR took the lead in designing the new organization and determining its decision-making structure and activities.Inigially such Big Three disagreed on several aspects and foreshadowed Cold War.Soviet Rusdia demanded individual membership for its constituent republics.Britain sought assurance that its colonies would be free fro the UN control.Voting system that the Security Council will follow was another key issue of dusagreement.Such an issue later earned the name Veto Problem.
FOUNDARION AT DUMBERTON OAKS:
Dumberton Oaks Conference(21st August to 7th October)laid the foundation of United Nations by a meeting of three Big Powers along with China. In Wasington D.C.the four countries agreed on general purpose,structure and functionalities of the new world organization. The Conference ended amidst continuing disagreement over membership and voting.
YALTA CONFERENCE LAID THE BASIS:
At Yalta Conference,a meeting of Big Three in a Crimean resort laid the basis for the Charter provisions.It tentatively decided on the number of Soviet republics that the organisation would accept as independent members.Big Power leaders also decided that they would include a trusteeship system to succeed the mandate system of the League.
YALTA CONFERENCE MODIFIED DUMBERTON PROPOSALS ON THE UNITED NATIONS:
The proposals of Dumberton Oaks that Yalta Conference modified formed the basis of negotiations at the UN Conference on International Organization((UNCIO) of San Francisco on April 25th of 1945.Representatives of 50 countries from all demographies attended it.
SIGNATORIES AT THE UNITED NATIONS CONFRERENCE ON INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION:
The number of signatories were from Europe 9,from America 21,from Middle East 7,from East Asia 2,1each from Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic and Belorussian Soviet Socialist Republic,5 from British Commonwealth.Though Poland was not present at the Conference it gained the permission to become an original member of United Nations Organization.It affirmed the Veto Power of Security Council permanent members.
THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY VOWED TO DISCUSS MATTERS THAT SOUGHT COMPROMISE IN MITIGATION:
Any member of General Assembly could raise issued for discussion. Compromise sought to resolve many political issues for economic and social enhancements.Overviewing the United Nations appreciates its schedulings on status of colonies,distribution of trusteeship,status of regional and defense arrangements and Great Power dominance versus equality of states.
THE ULTIMATE COMMENCEMENT OF THE UNITED NATIONS CHARTER:
Signatories promulgated the UN Charter on October 24th 1945 which they signed and adopted on June 26th.
The Charter outlines the purposes,principes and organization of The United Nations.Article Two of it mentions that UN bases on the sovereign equality of all its member nations.They need to settle disputes by peaceful means and step away from applying force or its threat.It is the duty of the member states to aid and assist the organisation in any enforcement action it takes under the Charter.
THE UNITED NATIONS SEEK THAT THE NON-MEMBERS ALSO COMPLY WITH IT:
Principles necessary to maintain and enhance international peace and security demand that non-member states also follow The United Nations Charter.It forbids UN intervention in domestic affairs of states.But the concepts as international and domestic jurisdiction merged on UN activities.
QUESTION OF ADMISSION OF NEW COUNTRIES IN THE UNITED NATIONS:
United Nations admits new members on recommendations of Security Council along with two thirds majority vote of General Assembly.Admission matters created controversies several times.By 1950,only 9 out of 31 applicants became members.In 1971,in an effort to improve relationship with Mainland China,United Nations refrained from blocking General Assembly voting to admit People’s Republic of China.It gained a permanent Security Council seat.
ADMISSION OF GERMANY AND KOREA IN UNITED NATIONS:
Federal Republic of Germany(West Germany)and German Democratic Republic (East Germany)had separate seats in UN.Their re-unification in October 1990 reduced it to one.Vietnam gained abmission in 1977 and two Koreas(North and South)separately in 1991.
ADMISSIONS AT THE UN TILL 1960 AND MEMBERSHIPAT THE ONSET OF NEW CENTURY:
The years 1955 ro 1960 admitted new members that followed worldwide dw-colonization.By the end of 1970 s there were about 150 members in United Nations. Gaining freedom of many former Soviet republics added to the membership.By the early 21st century the membership turned to 190.
THE UNITED NATIONS TODAY:
Today,the United Nations seks to serve rhe interests of 193 member states.It folliws the first two chapters of the UN Charter that aims at ending the scourges of war and regaining the fairh in the fundamental human rights.
Human Rights:Aspirations and realities.In 1948 UN proclaimed The Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
THE UNITED NATIONS EMERGED BRIGHT WITH ITS UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS:
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights includes the rights not to enslave,right to free expression and the right to seek from other countries asylum from persecution.There exist certain aspirational rights on education,equal patment for equal work and to national sovereignty.
AN ESTIMATION OF KEY ORGANS THAT CONSTITUTES THE UNITED NATIONS:
An estimation on UN acivities reveal that General Assembly became a platform where Presidents and Prime Ministers delivered incoherent lengthy speeches of high promises that mostly in many cases impacted disheartening.Symbolic diplomacy only won and lost.
THE SECURITY COUNCIL AS THE EXECUTIVE ORGAN OF THE UNITED NATIONS AND ITS PERMANENT BIG FIVE MEMBERS:
Security Council is powerful but often turns paralytic.The fifteen member organ is the most powerful arm of the UN Organization. It bears the power to impose sanctions.Security Council has done so in North Korea over its nuclear arsenal and missiles.Critics opine that it is the most anachronistic part of the entire United Nations. Its five permanent members or P5 are the victors of the Second World War. The other ten members possess seats for different regions of the world.Ten non-permanent members acquire seats for two-year term.
COUNTRIES THAT SOUGHT PERMANENT SEATS IN THE UNITED NATIONS:
Countries like India,Japan,Germany sought to acquire permanent seats in Security Council.USA,USSR has vetoed peace keeping resolutions several times and made the Organisation ineffective to diffuse major conflicts.
THE TOTAL POWERFUL SECRETARY GENERAL OF THE UNITED NATIONS CANNOT IGONORE SECURITY COUNCIL BIG FIVE:
The declaration of The UN Charter on the role of UN Secretary General is rather indistinct.The office depends largely on fund and goodwill of several powerful naitions.The Security Council that the five powerful members head elects the Secretary General by secret ballots. It turns thus difficult for him to ignore the Big Powers. He serves for a duration of five years.
THE UNITED NATIONS ACTIVITIES ON GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT:
Recent UN Climate Action Summit at the General Assembly seeks to highlight concrete promises by the leaders to wean global economy and avoid worst effects of global warming. In 2015,General Assembly unanimously endorsed Sustainable Development Goals.It spoke of 17 items as regards 2030 objectives.
THE UNITED NATIONS FORMULATIONS ON 2030 OBJECTIVES:
1)No Piverty,2)Zero Hunger,3)Good Health and Well Being,4)Quality Education,5)Gender Equality,6)Clean Water and Sanitation,7)Affordable and Clean Energy,8)Decent Work and Economic Growth,9)Industrial Innovation and Infrastructure,10)Reduction in Inequalities,11)Sustainable Cities and Communities 12)Responsible Consumption and Production,13)Climate Action,14)Life Below Water,14)Life on Land,15)Peace,Justice and Strong Institutions,17)Partnerships.
Funds and Programs.
THE UNITED NATIONS INTEGRATIONS:
The General Assembly created in 1946 The United Nations Children’s Fund(former United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund).It operates to provide emergency food and healthcare to children and mothers in countries that the Second World War devastated.
THE UNICEF EXTENTIONS ON NEEDS OF CHILDREN AND MOTERS WORLDWIDE:
In 1950 UN extended UNICEF mandate to address long-term needs of children and mothers in developing countries worldwide.In 1953,it became a permanent integration of the UN system.It excluded the terms International and Emergency from its name.
MEMBERSHIP IN UNICEF:
The UNICEF members are government representatives whom the members of Economic and Social Council(ECOSOC)elect for a term of one year.It relies on contributions from government and private donors.
SUPPLY DIVISION OF THE UNICEF:
UNICEF’S supply division in Copenhagen(Denmark)serves as the primal point of distribution of essential items as anti-retroviral medicines for children and mothers with HIV,nutritional supplements,emergency shelters,family er-unification and educational supplies.
The UN Population Fund is formerly the UN Fund Fund For Popularion Activities that acts as the UN sexual and reproductive health agency.It aims at developing the world where healthy pregnancy everywhere provides for safe child-birth and every youth finds opportunities to unfold his potential.In 2018,UNFPA sought to achieve transformation that transformed the world for every man,women and youth.
UN Development Programme is the global development network of United Nations.General Assembly established it in 1965.It provides expert advice,train and support developing countries.Its executive board consists of representatives of thirty six countries around the world who serve on rotation basis.The network spans 165 countries and integrates 40 UN funds,programs,specialized agencies and other bodies operating to advance 2030 agenda for sustainable development.
The UNEP is the gloabal environmental authority that sets up the global environmental agenda,promotes the coherent implementation of sustainable development environmental dimensions. The UN Environment Programme and the WMO(World Meteriological Panel)established IPCC(Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change)in 1988 to access climate changes Its activities base on latest science and technology.UNEP developed Multilateral Environmental Agreements(MEA) and hosts Secretariat for the nine MEA s.The General Assembly founded the UNEP in 1972.
THE MULTILATERAL ENVIRONMENTAL AGREEMENT OF UNEP:
The MEA s include:
Convention on Biological Diversity(CBD).
Convention on International trade on about to distinct species.
Convention on conservation of migratory species and animals.
Vienna Convention for the protectionof ozone layer.
Minamata Convention on mercury.
Basel Convention on control of trans-boundary movements of hazardous waste.
Stockholm Convention on persistent organic pollutants.
Rotterdam Convention on prior-informed consent procedure for certain hazardous chemicals and pesticides in international trade.
5)THE UNITED NATIONS HABITAT:
Through the programs on human settlement UN seeks to promote socially and environmentally sustainable human settlement as a step to development.It seeks to achieve adequate shelter for all.The programme was an outcome of The UN Conference on Human Settlement and Sustainable Urban Development(Habitat l,1976) in Vancpuver,Canada.
GOALS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE UN HABITAT:
The 2nd UN Conference in Istanbul,Turkey(Habitatll,1996)set the goals on habitat agenda.The 3rd Conference bearing the same agenda((Habitatlll,2016)in Quito,Equador,elaborated on Sustainable Development Goals(SDG).The ideologies behind such goals sought to make cities and human settlements inclusive,safe,resilient and sustainable.
The Food and Agricultural Organization(FAO)and the UN General Assembly established WFP in 1963.
The World Food Programme is the leading humanitarian organization that seek to save and transform lives,deliver food assistance in emergencies.It works with committes to improve nutritional levels and build resilience.
SEVERAL MORE INTEGRATIONS AND AGENCIES:
The UN Specialized Agencies are autonomous integrations operating with the entire UN Organization. They relate to the UN with agreements and negotiations.Some such agencies existed even before the First World War. Articles 57 and 63 of the United Nations Charter inclyded provisions for developing such agencies.
The session of The UN ,1945,in Quebec City,Canada created The Food and Agricultural Organuzation.It leads efforts to defeat hunger.FAO helps the developing countries in transition to modernize and improve agriculture,forestry and fishery practices,ensure proper nutrition and food security for all.
The Chicago Convention in 1944 established International Civil Aviation Organization.It manages the administration and governance of the Convention on International Civil Aviation in Chicago.It provides the principal techniques of international air navigation.ICAO fosters the planning of international air transport.
The International Fund for Agricultural Development is an international finance institution that the General Assembly created through its resolution. It was a major outcome of 1974 World Food Conference.The United Nations organized such a conference in response to the food crises in early 1970 s.Global good shortage at that hour caused widespread famine and malnutrition specially in several African countries.
The International Labour Organization is an UN agency that promptly sought to advance social justice and promote decent work structures and prospects.It sets up international labour standards and promote work rights,employment opportunities,enhances social protection and strengthens dialogues on issues that relate work.
THE ILO ACHIEVEMENTS:
ILO became the first UN Specialized Agency in 1946 by signing the UN Argument.It won Nobel Prize for Peace on the 50th Anniversary of UN in 1969 for pursuing decent work and justice fir the working categories.In 1980 ,ILO played a major role in emancipating Poland from dictatorship. It emphasized that no individual or organization predetermine the future of work.Societies develop schemes for decent work.ILO established its Global Commission on the future of work as a part of its initiative to mark its centenary in 2019.
The UN Monetary and Financial Conference(Bretton Woods Conference)sought to regulate international monetary and financial order at the termination of the Second World War.The international financial sector heads formed International Monetary Fund in 1945.
6)THE WORLD BANK:
Bretton Wood Conference also formed IDBR that brought about the World Bank.
The International Maritime Organization carries out the responsibility of safety and security of shipping.It aims at preventing marine and atmospheric pollution by the ships.
International Telecommunication Organization is responsible for issues that concern information and telecommunication technologies(ICT)It is the oldest among the agencies that perform special category welfare functions in the United Nations.
ITU has its base on Geneva,Switzerland.It works on principles of international cooperation between governments of member states and the private sectors as sector members,assiciates,academics.Allocation of global ratio spectrum and satellite orbits,developing technical standards that ensure seamless interconnections of networks and technologies are its tasks.
United Nations Educational,Scientific and Cultural Organization had its origin in 1945.It serks to develop intellectual and moral solidarity of mankind as means of building peace that really lasts.UNESCO has its base in Paris,France.Such an organization develops educational tools to help people live as global citizens free of hatred and intolerance. By promoting cultural heritage it seeks to strengthen bonds among nations.
United Nations Industrial Development Organization promotes industrial development for eradication of poverty,inclusion of globalization and environmental sustainability.
11)WHO:The World Health Organization had its origin in 1948.It has its headquarters in Geneva,Switzerland. As an inter-governmental organization it acts in collaboration with its members.The ministers of health that belongs its members relate to it.The agency provides leadership in global health matters,moulds health research agenda,sets up norms and standards,support countries in technology orientations,minitor and assert health trends.
The UN Office on Drug and Crime is a global leader in fighting against illicit drugs and international crimes.In 1997,International Crime Prevention merged with UN Drug Control Programme to form UNDOC.
UNHCR is the office of United Nations High Commissioner for refugees that originated in 1950.It sought to aid and assist millions of Europeans who had fled or lost their homes after the Second World War.In 1954 ,UNHCR won the Nobke Prize fir Peace for its groundbreaking activities in Europe.
At the onset of the 21st century UNHCR sought to operate at the cause of major refugee crises in Africa,Middle East and Asia.
United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and Pacific is the primal socio-economic development segment of the UN.It gas its headquarters inBangkok,Thailand.It respoonds to the needs and priorities through its convening authoritiy,socio-economic analysis,setting up of norms and standards and technical support and assistance.
TO CONCLUDE OVERVIEWING THE UNITED NATIONS WITH:
An Indian Express article of September 2020 spoke on reforms in the UN system.It in fact needs reforms as the 21st century is turning more and more complicated in all living aspects.Terrorism,proliferation of mass-destruction weapons,pandemics,clkmate crises,cyber crimes etc.are turning situations difficult.As the epitome of multilateral world order it is gaining faith worldwide.The world really awaits fir its solution on critical aspects as Coronavirus.All apprenhend that its agenciy as The World Organization will speak effectively on Covid19 vaccine and resistivity.